The English word scientist was first coined by William Whewell in the 19th century. Before that, there were natural philosophers.
Natural philosophers aspired to empirical investigations. Classical examples include Thales and Aristotle. Then, the scientific method was methodically employed since the Middle Ages (for example, by Ibn al-Haytham and Roger Bacon).
Modern science began to develop in the early modern period, and in particular in the scientific revolution of 16th- and 17th-century Europe. Traditionally, historians of science have defined science sufficiently broadly to include those earlier inquiries.
According to Wikipedia’s organization at least, Modern science can be broken down into the following:
- Natural sciences
- Social sciences
Meanwhile, we should also continue considering philosophy, which continues to influence fundamental questions of knowledge, value, reason, etc.
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